Proverbs and Sayings as Objects of Linguistic Study
Proverbs and sayings are considered to be the main elements of the linguistic world-view. Individuals are able to understand themselves only due to the language, where all historical, social and moral experience is fixed. Proverbs and sayings obtain a unique quality – they reflect everything, which can somehow describe the peculiarity of a whole nation, such as everyday routine, preferences, attitude to different spheres of life, reflection of philosophical, religious, ethical and esthetic views .
A great number of linguists devoted their works to proverbs and sayings. Among them are A. Afanasiev, M. Dubrovin, A. Potebnja, etc. [1, 106]. In the 20th century there appeared one more aspect of their study, namely a linguoculturological one. They began being examined as stereotypes, which describe our life. Proverbs and sayings become a part of our mentality, which form the basis of linguistic word image of every nation
However, there still exists a difficulty in distinguishing between these two concepts. Generally speaking, proverb is something that is popularly known and repeated. It is said to expresses the truth, which is based on common sense or experience. Indeed, saying can be defined as written or spoken linguistic expression memorable because of its meaning or structure. Proverb is usually considered to be more substantial than a saying, something insightful. Sayings are known to be incomplete or unfinished, e.g. When pigs can fly; When two Sundays come together.
Moreover, nowadays we can come along a variety of definition, which refer to proverbs and saying. Thus, Longman Contemporary English Dictionary defines proverb as following: a short well-known statement that contains advice about life in general . M. Dubrovin underlines the conceptual side of the term. He writes that proverb is a short sentence often quoted by people. In his opinion it is a true statement reflecting ancient history of a certain nation, it is something that gives or tells recipients about human life and problems in general.
According to Longman Dictionary saying and proverb are synonyms. The former is determined as a well-known short statement most people believe is true and wise. V. Dal in his turn considers saying to be a statement which has not yet developed into a proverb.
Nevertheless, both proverbs and sayings have similar distinguishable characteristics. Their memorability and recall can be achieved by several linguistics means. Firstly, assonance rhyme, e.g. Little strokes fell great oaks; A stitch in time saves nine. Secondly, simple well-balanced from of proverbs and sayings is also noteworthy, e.g. More haste, less speed; Easy come, easy go; Like father, like son. Thirdly, briefness is a very important aspect of memorable sayings. Only a few of them may consist more than five words, e.g. Boys will be boys; Dead men tell no tales; Better late than never; Practice makes perfect.
Thus, proverbs and sayings can provide invaluable material for linguistic study, as they reflect historical events, ethnography, everyday routine and world-view of different nations.
Список использованных источников
1. Егорова Э.В., Крашенинникова Н.А. Пословицы и поговорки как объект изучения в лингвистике // Поволжский педагогический поиск, 2014, № 1(7). - С. 106-108.
2. Щанкина Э.В., Крашенинникова Н.А. Фольклорная составляющая как элемент отражения русской картины мира // Молодой ученый, 2011, № 11-1. - С. 210-213.
3. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. http://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/pdf
(accessed time: 02.03.17).