Geography. Dagestan is located in the northeastern part of the Caucasus, along the coast of the Caspian Sea. It borders the Republic of Azerbaijan in the south, Georgia in the southwest, as well as the Chechen Republic in the west, the Stavropol Territory in the northwest and the Republic of Kalmykia in the north. The area is 50,270 km². Dagestan is often called the country of mountains. The average elevation of the whole territory of Dagestan is 960 m. 44.3% of the region are lowlands, 15.8% – piedmonts, 17.7% – moderately high mountains, and 22.2% – the territory located at a height of more than 2000 m.
Climate. The climate in the north and the central part of Dagestan is moderately continental and dry.
- From +4°C in the valleys to −11°C in the high mountains in January
- From +30°C in the valleys to +8°C in the high mountains in July
Economy. The main industries are agriculture, wine making, fishing, folk crafts (including carpet making), oil extraction, natural gas extraction, light and chemical industries, mechanical engineering, and electric power production.
Logistics. The Republic of Dagestan has a favorable geopolitical location, with direct access to international sea routes.
- Federal highways: М29, Р216, Е50.
- The most important federal railway routes that connect Russia with southern CIS countries and other foreign countries. There is the Makhachkala Railway Station.
- Uytash International Airport in Makhachkala.
- Naryn-Kala Fortress of Derbent was built in the 8th—16th centuries. The citadel was built on a hill, as close to the Caspian Sea as possible. Its designated purpose was to shut a narrow coastal passage to the land of the Persians. The area is approximately 4.5 ha. The building has an irregular shape. Inside the perimeter, many buildings have been preserved, including baths. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
- Kubachi Village in the Dakhadaevsky District was first mentioned in the chronicles in the 5th century. Since olden times, it has been famous for its craftspeople, including chain mail makers. Nowadays, local people do wood and stone carving, but tourists’ attention is attracted mostly by metal handicrafts. Weapons, old-style armor, and household items – you can find all of this in Kubachi. There is an artistic combine with a museum here.
- Juma Mosque of Derbent is considered the oldest mosque not only in Russia, but also in the CIS countries. It was built in the 8th century. It was overbuilt and changed its appearance many times. In particular, it was restored in the 14th century after the earthquake. In the courtyard, there are four perennial plane trees recognized as a natural site. They can be seen from many points of the city.
The capital is the city of Makhachkala, founded in 1844.
It is a major economic, administrative, political, scientific and cultural center in the South of Russia. Every year, at the beginning of fall, the city holds the Ballooning Festival “Caucasus Mineralnye Vody Region is the Pearl of Russia.”